ASE: Theoretical Methods for the Calculation of Global Warming Potentials

lørdag 10 januar 2009, kl. 14:02 | Publisert i Klima, Konferanser og kurs | Legg igjen en kommentar
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Bilde av Ronald Reagen: Politikere – hva vet de om science? – 1979: 80% av forurensningen komemr fra planter og dyr. 1988: biler mer enn trær. 1966: et tre er et tre

 

Don quayle: 1988 ikke forurensningen, men det som er i luft og hav

 

Hydrocardigans don prescott

 

Outline:

  1. Greenhouse effect
    1. Radiation balance (ujevne fordelingen av solstrålingen på jordens overflate, samt utstrålingen fra jorden, som er mer jevnt fordelt).

                                                               i.      Ein=Fs(1-A)*Pi*R2

                                                             ii.      Eout=4*Pi*R2*s*Te4

  1.  
    1. Temperature of the earth

                                                               i.        Te = 256K (men global temp er 288K)

                                                             ii.      Fs = solar konstanten

  1. Earth and the planets
    1. Plot temperature against 1/r1/2

                                                               i.      Passer ikke for Venus, some r mye varmere

  1.  
    1. Electromagnetic spectrum.
    2. Greenhouse effect can happen because of difference in the radiation from the sun and from the sun
    3. Vibrating molecules – with music Muse

                                                               i.      Reason for temperature absorption

                                                             ii.      Interaction between temperature and vibration, electric field, frequencies (correct one)

                                                            iii.      Atmospheric warming

1.      vibrational energy is transferred to the surrounding molecules (CO2) og varmer atmosfæren

  1.  
    1. why venus hotter?

                                                               i.      965 000 ppm CO2

                                                             ii.      Atmosphere 93 times as dense

                                                            iii.      Why more CO2? Run-away-greenhouse effect

                                                           iv.      Water content – phase diagram for water is important

                                                             v.      Venus never reaches the point where you get water in liquid or solid, all vapour à greenhouse effect and hot

                                                           vi.      At hight temperatures CO2 is released from carbonates in the planetary crust

  1.  
    1. Temperature on earth – 256K or 288K?

                                                               i.      256K – balance between energy going in and energy going out

                                                             ii.      288K is greenhouse effect

1.      look at earthshine viewed from space – black body radiation from the earth

2.      remember CO2, O3 og H2O, stops some of it (not perfect graph)

  1. Carbon dioxide
  2. Particles in the atmosphere
    1. Studerer så strålingspådriv, sammenligner verdier for året 2000 med verdier for 1750
    2. Aerosols

                                                               i.      Reflects radiation

                                                             ii.      Absorbs radiation from the sun

                                                            iii.      Second organic aerosol: look blue, scatter radiation from the sun

  1. Ozone depletion
    1. Ozone in the lab

                                                               i.      Warm up ozone

                                                             ii.      Appelsinskall oppi, inneholder myrcene

                                                            iii.      Reagerer med terpenes (C10H16)

                                                           iv.      Reagerer med organiske forbindelser

  1.  
    1. Climate change and ozone depletion

                                                               i.      Ozonhullet 1987

                                                             ii.      KNMI/ESA

                                                            iii.      Cause of the ozone hole

1.      cold of the Antarctic vortex

2.      angular momentum is conserved (windspeed increases)

3.      low temperatures cause polar stratospheric clouds to form

a.       HCl + ClONO2 à Cl2 + HNO3

4.      sun comes up

a.       Cl2 is photolysed

b.      Fritt Cl bryter ned O3

5.      at high altitudes (low pressures) excited CO2 emits radiation leading to cooling, which may exacerbate the ozone hole problem

  1. Calculating global warming
    1. SF5CF3 – most potent greenhouse gas in the atmosphere
    2. Global warming potensials

                                                               i.      0,99x + 68.93 (men jeg vet ikke hva x er)

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