CarboSchools – Modelling (Sharing Experiments continues)

søndag 3 mai 2009, kl. 1:03 | Publisert i Konferanser og kurs | Legg igjen en kommentar
Stikkord: , , , , ,

Marc Jamous – Regional Coordinator in France – Predicting CO2 scenarios through models

image

1958 was the first year that the total amount of atmospheric CO2 was measured, which is the reason for the start year for this simplistic model. In this model you start by the total amount of atmospheric CO2, and after that you add fuel emission and land use.

imageThe first step is to add the emissions to the atmospheric amount. The second step would be to compare the measured and the calculated CO2 data. The students will then see that there in a gap between the measured and calculated values – CO2 must be absorbed somewhere else then in the atmosphere.

image

The next step is to find a suitable value for the natural absorption, as a percentage of the emissions.

This is a great introduction to climate modelling as a discussion theme with our students.

Further on it would be possible to split natural absorption in absorption by the ocean and absorption by the vegetation.

After making this model, it is now possible to include the prediction scenarios from the IPCC reports to calculate model results. It is also possible to get the students to make their own scenarios.

Camparison between the pessimistic and optimistic scenarios:

image

My concluding remarks: This was an easy but fantastic way of introducing the principles of climate modelling! I look forward to try this with my own students next year 🙂 I also want to thank Marc for sharing his files with us.

Advertisements

ASE: New Insight to Inverse Modelling: From Fuel Cells via Cognitive Neuroscience to Archealogy

lørdag 10 januar 2009, kl. 14:06 | Publisert i Konferanser og kurs | Legg igjen en kommentar
Stikkord: , ,

Magnetic tomography

ERT

 

Cognitive neuroscience (psykologi, matematikk, kybernetikk)

Neurons – axons – dendrites (collect potential from surroundings), signals sent via axons – neuro-transmitter to another cell

Neural modelling

1)      discrete models 1-0

2)      ODE models

3)      Compartmental models

4)     

 

Levels of neural modelling: Hodgkin Huxley equations

Modelling the local behaviour of the cells – cable equation

Neural networks = Complex systems, system of systems

Neural modelling:

1)      spike response – first

2)     

3)      Today imaging

 

Computer tomography

Electroencephalography

MEG

MRI

ODT, NIRS

TMR

Functional MRI – functional blood-oxygen level

 

EEG – topological maps of brain potentials in high time resolution

 

Cognition and neural structures

1)      symbolic structures

2)      language structures

3)      connectivistic neural settings

4)      observe w/medical imaging technicognitive prosesses and neural processes

5)      inverse problems

 

cognitive processes      data structures and algoritms

state soace representations       medical imaging

neurodynamics

 

The broker persuaded to sell the stock was sent to jail

 

The broker WHO was persuaded to sell the stock was sent to jail

 

Phase structure strees to study sentences

 

EEG for language processing

Brain potentials – P600 (peak)

Hvert element av en setning gis en retning I et vektorrom, her 5 dimensjoner. (subjekt er en retning, objekt en osv)

Fock space representations.

 

NFE = neuro field equation

Amari equation (Amari 77)

 

2D eksempel på tomografi: laser lys inn I en svart væske der du har gjemt noe

Har brukt et skjema for å løse det (man får mange mange verdier)

Trenger å kunne løse lineær algebra. Putte verdier inn i et program.

Matematikken gir et viktig verktøy for hva man kan se / finne ut av / …

Alt er matematikk, uansett om du liker det eller ikke

ASE: Theoretical Methods for the Calculation of Global Warming Potentials

lørdag 10 januar 2009, kl. 14:02 | Publisert i Klima, Konferanser og kurs | Legg igjen en kommentar
Stikkord: , ,

Bilde av Ronald Reagen: Politikere – hva vet de om science? – 1979: 80% av forurensningen komemr fra planter og dyr. 1988: biler mer enn trær. 1966: et tre er et tre

 

Don quayle: 1988 ikke forurensningen, men det som er i luft og hav

 

Hydrocardigans don prescott

 

Outline:

  1. Greenhouse effect
    1. Radiation balance (ujevne fordelingen av solstrålingen på jordens overflate, samt utstrålingen fra jorden, som er mer jevnt fordelt).

                                                               i.      Ein=Fs(1-A)*Pi*R2

                                                             ii.      Eout=4*Pi*R2*s*Te4

  1.  
    1. Temperature of the earth

                                                               i.        Te = 256K (men global temp er 288K)

                                                             ii.      Fs = solar konstanten

  1. Earth and the planets
    1. Plot temperature against 1/r1/2

                                                               i.      Passer ikke for Venus, some r mye varmere

  1.  
    1. Electromagnetic spectrum.
    2. Greenhouse effect can happen because of difference in the radiation from the sun and from the sun
    3. Vibrating molecules – with music Muse

                                                               i.      Reason for temperature absorption

                                                             ii.      Interaction between temperature and vibration, electric field, frequencies (correct one)

                                                            iii.      Atmospheric warming

1.      vibrational energy is transferred to the surrounding molecules (CO2) og varmer atmosfæren

  1.  
    1. why venus hotter?

                                                               i.      965 000 ppm CO2

                                                             ii.      Atmosphere 93 times as dense

                                                            iii.      Why more CO2? Run-away-greenhouse effect

                                                           iv.      Water content – phase diagram for water is important

                                                             v.      Venus never reaches the point where you get water in liquid or solid, all vapour à greenhouse effect and hot

                                                           vi.      At hight temperatures CO2 is released from carbonates in the planetary crust

  1.  
    1. Temperature on earth – 256K or 288K?

                                                               i.      256K – balance between energy going in and energy going out

                                                             ii.      288K is greenhouse effect

1.      look at earthshine viewed from space – black body radiation from the earth

2.      remember CO2, O3 og H2O, stops some of it (not perfect graph)

  1. Carbon dioxide
  2. Particles in the atmosphere
    1. Studerer så strålingspådriv, sammenligner verdier for året 2000 med verdier for 1750
    2. Aerosols

                                                               i.      Reflects radiation

                                                             ii.      Absorbs radiation from the sun

                                                            iii.      Second organic aerosol: look blue, scatter radiation from the sun

  1. Ozone depletion
    1. Ozone in the lab

                                                               i.      Warm up ozone

                                                             ii.      Appelsinskall oppi, inneholder myrcene

                                                            iii.      Reagerer med terpenes (C10H16)

                                                           iv.      Reagerer med organiske forbindelser

  1.  
    1. Climate change and ozone depletion

                                                               i.      Ozonhullet 1987

                                                             ii.      KNMI/ESA

                                                            iii.      Cause of the ozone hole

1.      cold of the Antarctic vortex

2.      angular momentum is conserved (windspeed increases)

3.      low temperatures cause polar stratospheric clouds to form

a.       HCl + ClONO2 à Cl2 + HNO3

4.      sun comes up

a.       Cl2 is photolysed

b.      Fritt Cl bryter ned O3

5.      at high altitudes (low pressures) excited CO2 emits radiation leading to cooling, which may exacerbate the ozone hole problem

  1. Calculating global warming
    1. SF5CF3 – most potent greenhouse gas in the atmosphere
    2. Global warming potensials

                                                               i.      0,99x + 68.93 (men jeg vet ikke hva x er)

Blogg på WordPress.com.
Entries og kommentarer feeds.